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Chromium plays a role in the metabolism of glucose, and is necessary for energy production. Since this mineral assists in the production of insulin, it helps to stabilize blood sugar levels and can be beneficial both for people with hypoglycemia and diabetes. It is also critical to the synthesis of cholesterol, fats, and proteins.
Chromium polynicotinate is more effective than any other type of chromium, as it binds the elemental chromium to niacin (vitamin B-3). This provides a biologically active form of chromium, which is more absorbable in the body.
More than 90% of U.S. adults have a deficiency of the mineral chromium. Chromium is not readily absorbed from foods, and the human body even has difficulty in absorbing chromium from most nutritional supplements. To alleviate this problem, the U.S. Department of Agriculture developed and patented chromium picolinate, a readily absorbed form of the mineral. The U.S.D.A. licensed chromium picolinate to Nutrition 21 of San Diego, which manufactures the nutrient-grade powder. Their product is available in capsule form from several makers of nutritional supplements.
A number of reports on the importance of chromium picolinate were made at the October, 1992 Conference of the American Aging Association in San Francisco. At that conference, biochemist Gary W. Evans of Bemidji State University in Minnesota reported that laboratory rats fed diets supplemented with chromium picolinate lived to a median age of 45 months compared to a median life span of 33 months for rats fed a similar diet with other forms of chromium supplementation. Rats deficient in chromium typically live no more than 24 months. Chromium is believed to enhance the effectiveness of insulin, a hormone vital for the processing of glucose. Supplemental chromium reduces blood glucose levels.
High levels of glucose and problems with insulin activity cause glycation, a process that damages vital proteins in the body. This protein damage is the principal reason that diabetics have a lower life expectancy than normal. Many researchers believe that supplementary chromium could be very useful for diabetics, especially those with type 2, or adult-onset, diabetes.
It has been known for several decades that restricting calorie intake by about one-third will increase the life span by 50 percent or more. In every species tested, calorie restriction has produced a significant increase in life span. (It is vital, though, that the calorie-restricted diet not be deficient in any essential nutrient.)
It is widely believed that the effectiveness of calorie-restriction is mostly due to the lower blood glucose levels induced by calorie restriction. This results in less protein damage from a process known as glycation. Most of the researchers using chromium picolinate believe that the increased longevity it produces are due to its effects on reducing protein damage caused by poor glucose and insulin metabolism.
Other studies reported at the conference showed that chromium picolinate in humans improved the HDL/LDL ratio and that it increased muscle mass while decreasing the percentage of body fat. Athletes doing weight training taking chromium picolinate at Bemidji State University had a 21 percent greater drop in body fat and a 42 percent greater increase in muscle mass than athletes on the same program not taking the supplement.
The standard dose of chromium picolinate is 200 micrograms per day for a adult. The wholesale price of a year's supply of chromium picolinate is about a dollar. Of course, the retail price of the capsules available to the consumer is much higher than this.
Another form of bioavailable chromium is chromium polynicotinate, or niacin-bound chromium. It is also a patented substance, and is sold under the tradename Chrome-Mate. Chromium polynicotinate seems to have some definite advantages over chromium picolinate, including even better bioavailability.
One study indicated that large amounts of chromium picolinate cause chromosome damage, whereas chromium polynicotinate did not. At first, this study was widely criticized because the chromium picolinate levels were far higher than one would get with normal supplementation. Subsequently, however, many other scientific studies have called into question the safety of chromium picolinate.
It now appears that niacin-bound chromium is a much safer form of chromium for supplementation. Some studies have also shown that niacin is necessary for chromium supplements to be of benefit.
Chromium aspartate, an unpatented and much less expensive form of chromium, appears also be very well absorbed; but it does not have the benefit of the level of scientific testing that the patented forms have. This makes it difficult for the consumer to know which form of chromium to take. Even supplement manufacturers are confused and some supplements contain a mixture of two or more of the above-mentioned forms.
Even though chromium aspartate may work as well as the other two forms, the only advantage of chromium aspartate is in its lower cost to the supplement manufacturer, who must buy it in large quantities. The cost of the chromium to the end user is not a significant factor because the amounts used in a daily supplement are so tiny.
Studies Show Chromium Picolinate is Dangerous
An alarming study conducted by Dr. John Vincent at the University of Alabama shows that chromium picolinate reacts with antioxidants in the cells to produce in "reduced" form of chromium capable of causing mutations in DNA, our human genetic material. Based on this new research, the University of California at Berkeley warns that:
"Nobody should take chromium picolinate, especially not young people." This is not the first time that chromium picolinate has received negative press from the media and the scientific community. In 1995 and 1996 scientific studies showed that chromium picolinate could damage genetic material in animals. The research was funded by the National Cancer Institute and conducted at George Washington University, Department of Pharmacology, Washington, D.C. and Dartmouth College, Department of Chemistry.
The study included testing specific chromium supplements as well as various forms of chromium. Chromium picolinate, U.S. Patent 5194615, currently the most widely used form of chromium, was included in the study. The potential toxicity of the picolinate form of chromium has been an issue of debate over the past five years. The three forms of chromium analyzed in the study were:
Chromium Nicotinate (chromium bound to niacin; Niacin-bound chromium) Chromium Picolinate (chromium bound to picolinic acid, US Patent 4315927). Cytotoxicity was determined by measurement of colony formation in laboratory animals. Chromosome damage was measured as clastogenicity observed for cells in metaphase. Results were compared to those obtained in cells treated with ligands alone or with chromium. "Treatment with chromium picolinate producing 91 +/- 12% colony survival resulted in 32 +/- 12% of metaphases with chromosome damage."
"Chromium picolinate was found to cause significant chromosome damage at a non-toxic dose."
"Chromium nicotinate and CrCl3 (chloride) did not cause chromosome damage at equivalent doses."
Tufts University Diet & Nutrition Letter, Oct. 1996
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Human Nutrition Research Center, Chromium Study, 1996
George Washington University, Department of Pharmacology, Washington, D.C., Chromium Toxicity Study, 1995
ChroMemate tm Chromium Polynicotinate (niacin) Complex:Stop the roller coaster of low blood sugar and binge eating & control hunger with this powerful chromium niacin complex diet pill. Chromemate 90 tm is proven diet pill to help insulin metabolize fat, control hunger as an appetite suppressent for weight control, turn protein into muscle and convert sugar into energy, and will help you control hunger for weight control with this appetite suppressent pill. Also assists to potentiate insulin GTF while it helps to curb sugar cravings and may be used for hypoglycemia patients.
CHROMEMATE WEIGHT CONTROL FORMULA :
Overeating, Low Activity
CHROMEMATE WEIGHT CONTROL FORMULA :
FREE RADICAL NUETRALIZER
Ideal for ATHLETES, CANCER & AIDS PATIENTS
HIGH ABSORBANCE FORMULA
ENSURE YOUR HEALTH
BENEFITS OF USE:CHROMEMATE is a biologically active form of Chromium, bonded with Polynicotinate (which is niacin). Much research indicates that Niacin is a better bonding agent than picolinate.
A government study found that 90% of all Americans are deficient in this important essential mineral.
CHROMEMATE enhances insulin utilization - GTF (Glucose Tolerance Factor). Simply put, this means that CHROMEMATE helps your insulin to work better by forming a receptor site on your cells so that insulin can attach to them and more efficiently do its job of burning fats, carbohydrates and proteins as fuel.
Chromium is one of 16 essential trace minerals that your body needs to keep healthy and fit. Chromium plays a vital role in energy production, muscle development, fat and cholesterol metabolism and regulation of blood sugar level.
Curb Food Cravings Increase Energy Improve Overall Health Reduce Cholesterol
RESEARCH & STUDIES:U.S. Government studies show tha 9 out of 10 Americans do not get enough chromium in their diet.
A study at Auburn University showed that Chomemate reduced LDL cholesterol in humans by an average of 14%.
Much research indicates that Niacin is a better bonding agent than picolinate.
DOSES & DIRECTIONS:Adults take 4-6 capsules daily or as directed by physician.
INGREDIENTS:CHROMEMATE is a biologically active form of Chromium, bonded with Polynicotinate (which is niacin).
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*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease
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